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CIS 115

Embedded Systems, Computer Architecture & Finite State Machines

Tyranny of Numbers

For some time now, electronic man has known how 'in principle' to extend greatly his visual, tactile, and mental abilities through the digital transmission and processing of all kinds of information. However, all these functions suffer from what has been called 'the tyranny of numbers.' Such systems, because of their complex digital nature, require hundreds, thousands, and sometimes tens of thousands of electron devices.

-Jack Morton - 1957
VP of Bell Labs

Jack Kilby

Image Source: Wikipedia

Integrated Circuit

Image Source: Wikipedia

Robert Noyce

Image Source: Wikipedia

Intel Founders

Andy Grove, Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore (1978)

Image Source: Wikipedia

Moore's Law

Image Source: Wikipedia

Intel 4004

Image Source: Wikipedia

Microcontrollers

Image Source: Wikipedia

Fixed Program Computers

Image Source: Wikipedia

John von Neumann

Image Source: Wikipedia

Stored Program Computers

Von Neumann Architecture

Image Source: Wikipedia

System Bus

Image Source: Wikipedia

Image Source: Wikipedia

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

Image Source: Wikipedia

Hardware Classes

  1. Internal Components
  2. Storage
  3. Peripherals
  4. Cables & Connectors



Information from Wikibooks

Motherboard Features

Old Motherboard Diagram

Image Credit: Wikipedia

New Motherboard Diagram

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Processor

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Processor Features


cpuboss.com - Intel Core i7 3970X

Intel Core i7 3970X vs. AMD FX 9370

Memory (RAM)

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Memory Features

Graphics Card

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Graphics Card Features


gpuboss.com - EVGA GeForce GTX TITAN

EVGA GeForce GTX TITAN vs AMD Radeon HD 7970

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Solid State Drive (SSD)

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Disk Drive Features

Comparison

Image Credit: Computerworld

RAID

Optical Disk Drive (ODD)

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Optical Disk Comparison

Type Capacity Speed
CD 800 MB up to 88Mbit/s (72x)
DVD 4.7/8.5 GB 11.08 Mbit/s
Blu-ray 25/128 GB 54 Mbit/s

Power Supply (PSU)

Image Credit: Wikipedia

Device Usage
Video Card 50-150W / plug
PCI Card 5-10W
ODD 20-30W
HDD 15-30W
SSD ~5W
Motherboard 50-150W
RAM ~15W / DIMM
Processor 80-140W

Information from PCPower.com

Note: multiply by 1.5 to account for real usages and efficiency

Image Credit: build-your-own-computer.net

Other Peripherals

How can we represent the way real-world systems operate using a computer?

Finite State Machine

Image Source: Wikipedia

Moore Machine

Image Source: Stateworks.com

Ouput depends only on state
-or-
Each state can only have 1 set of outputs

Mealy Machine

Image Source: Stateworks.com

Ouput depends on inputs and state
-or-
Each state can have multiple sets of outputs

Finite State Machine Examples

  1. Elevator Control System
  2. Stoplight
  3. Baseball At-bat
  4. Starting a Car
  5. Pinball Machine
  6. Store Self-Checkout
  7. ATM Withdrawal
  8. Keypad Security Lock
  9. Paper-Rock-Scissors Game
  10. Changing a Tire
  11. 2 Player Texas Hold-em Poker
  12. A DVD Player

Assignments

Blog 3: Computer Science Pioneers

Now that we’ve learned about many of the pioneers of Computer Science, it is a good oportunity to discuss one. Pick a pivotal figure in computer science to write about. Some questions I’d like you to answer:

Soda FSM